jueves, 31 de octubre de 2013
Eduardo Galeano began his Open Veins of Latin America with a descriptive picture of the bloody history of Latin America : " The international division of labor is that some countries specialize in winning and others in losing . Our region of the world, we now call Latin America, was precocious : he specialized in losing since the remote times when Renaissance Europeans rushed across the sea and sank her teeth into his throat. centuries passed , and Latin America perfected its functions. This is no longer the kingdom of wonders where reality defeated the fable and imagination was humiliated by the trophies of conquest , gold deposits and mountains of silver. But the region continues to work as a maid . continues to exist to serve the needs of others, as sources and reserves of oil and iron , copper and meat , fruits and coffee , raw materials and food destined for rich countries consume them earn much more than Latin America does from producing [.. . ] is Latin America, the region of open veins . since the discovery until today , everything has always been transmuted into European capital or , later United States , and as such has accumulated and accumulated in distant centers of power . Everything: the soil , its fruits and its mineral-rich depths , the people and their ability to work and consumption , natural resources and human resources . 's mode of production and class structure of each site have been successively determined , from outside , by joining the universal gear capitalism. " .......................................................... Eduardo Galeano began his Open Veins of Latin America with a descriptive picture of the bloody history of Latin America : " The international division of labor is that some countries specialize in winning and others in losing . Our region of the world, we now call Latin America, was precocious : he specialized in losing since the remote times when Renaissance Europeans rushed across the sea and sank her teeth into his throat. centuries passed , and Latin America perfected its functions. This is no longer the kingdom of wonders where reality defeated the fable and imagination was humiliated by the trophies of conquest , gold deposits and mountains of silver. But the region continues to work as a maid . continues to exist to serve the needs of others, as sources and reserves of oil and iron , copper and meat , fruits and coffee , raw materials and food destined for rich countries consume them earn much more than Latin America does from producing [.. . ] is Latin America, the region of open veins . since the discovery until today , everything has always been transmuted into European capital or , later United States , and as such has accumulated and accumulated in distant centers of power . Everything: the soil , its fruits and its mineral-rich depths , the people and their ability to work and consumption , natural resources and human resources . 's mode of production and class structure of each site have been successively determined , from outside , by joining the universal gear capitalism. " The emerging social welfarism in contemporary Latin America [edit · edit code ] Dates of independence of the countries of Latin America . The historical and social consciousness of the plight of Latin American populations mired in the deepest exploitation , impoverishment , poverty and misery, painfully forging the identity of the Latin American peoples . It is in this context that emerges Social Work in Latin America , from its " protoforms " handout , its praxis as social services , until its consolidation as various transdisciplinary theoretical core , which feed the praxis of " Social Work " , and allow the emergence of transdisciplinary and professional properties . As an historic building - subjectual , then consolidates a Social Work as a division of labor , as well as a specialty in the context of historical sciences - subjetuales in its theoretical dimension and a dimension technology subjectual in transforming and intervening in the social structures and dynamics . So transdisciplinary consolidation processes , are based on local cultural identities on the one hand , and on the other hand, they can establish criteria for cross disciplinary identity in the context of various professional practice in various Latin American nations. However, these processes have been diverse, complex , nonlinear, chaotic , interrupted , not infrequently by periods of military dictatorships ; 13 broadly bifurcate into two tendencies, one progressive , which arise expressions social work with new aspects regarding a " transformative intent , the rescue of the experience, social reconstruction , social movements focused on a project -oriented society " and another trend with a technical , less concerned philosophical questions , such as questioning ethical, political and existential latter trend , which being less dangerous politically , it delves into the post-dictatorship governments , in the context of liberal economic policies (- neoliberal - ) , but despite this , generates a series of contradictions and tensions between ethical principles , training of professionals on the one hand and the social worker's dynamic experience in a situation , deal with the phenomena manifested in social issues , 14 on the other. Social service and division of labor [edit · edit code ] Marilda V. Iamamoto15 in Social and Labour Division ( 1997 ) , presents his version of the emergency transdicisciplinaria lax in the context of recent Brazilian history , " Social Service arises from the initiative of groups and dominant class fractions are expressed through the Church as one of the leads of lay apostolic movement " , describing the dimension is obviously conservative church tradition " movement center of a reformist -conservative stamp " , prescribing and subsequent stage a process of secularization and modernization (considered globally and inaccurately as " positivist " ) : "the process of secularization and expansion of technical and scientific support of the profession " , consequently considering the progress of social science empirical foundation , have a similarly conservative base " under the influence of the progress made by the Social Sciences in the context of conservative thought , especially its American empiricist side " 16 Prospects such as M. V. Iamamoto , to be considered by other theoretical perspectives of social work as a reductionist , have raised the contemporary debate in Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century , especially around the theoretical , political practices and imaginaries in current social work emerged in Brazil in the context of the transformation of global society and Latin America experienced in this historical period . The project Gramscian and reconceptualization movement [edit · edit code ] Antonio Gramsci. In full context of the so-called Cold War cold that had little in Latin America , there are not so conservative proposals , such as a project " Gramscian " started in the late '60s in Brazil , alongside reconceptualization movement which seeks to break with the hegemony of the Catholic-inspired welfarism , and deepened during the seventies with the struggle of various social movements against the military regime and after the democratic transition began in 1984 . César A. Barrantes A. (1998-1999) , 17 presents a critical perspective about the concretions of Social Work in Social Work particular communities in Latin America , but with a special emphasis on the trends developed in Costa Rica . Barrantes develops a perspective similar to that he had submitted Ezequiel Ander -Egg in his work : " aches and hobbies reconceptualized social work ", 18 synthesizing , his perspective on the conceptualization of Social Work, as follows : " the history of the conceptualization and we remember that it was the search , not always free from existential problems of Social Workers, a platform vocabular , categorical , defining principles, principles , goals, objectives , targets and specific indicators of our practice not always aware tecnoprofesional scientific and policy ; platform whose mistake is in believing that it could use scientific nutrient blown from " the beyond social work " represented by the rest of the social sciences . ( ... ) what is the object that social work never had and , therefore , went missing ? . Their character Science . which after it had lost ? . Their object of study and intervention : the individual , the group , the community ( today we could talk of the town ) and the three classical methods to some colleagues tried to build them reconceptualized cutting paradigms or structural metatheories objectivist beyond the needs of the heterogeneous realities as Social Workers , most of which was not expressed in them or were unaware of its existence . ( ... ) This drama , inscribed in the logic of the itinerary of the conceptualization , is like the window through which you see, interpret and organize meanings , senses of reality. 's the scenario that leads constantly repeating , as the language to the tooth that hurts and it hurts precisely because we fail to recognize the potential that has not conducive to strategy and intervention under study desired . " The ethical-political project ( PEPO ) [edit · edit code ] Leonardo Boff, one of the most prominent advocates of liberation theology . The changes in the political orientation of the profession in the case of Brazil , are verified and in the Code of Professional Ethics of Social Work 1986. These processes manifest , while as conflictive , since the promulgation of the 1988 Constitution , and during the nineties , which records the inclusion in the 1993 Code of Ethics of a theoretical conception inspired by some aspects fundamentally Marxist- linked Georg Lukacs and Antonio Gramsci , in the form of an " ethical-political project " that explicitly assumes its "commitment to the working class ." This implementation of the original project was done in professional bodies and schools and colleges - mainly public - Teaching of Social Work, with a proposal for use of space that aims to control post-graduate courses for their reproductive potential inbred . This process has been described , among others, in the works of José Paulo Marilda Netto.19 Iamamoto and reflexively applying Marxist theory which underpin this process supposedly , and you can already tell that, politically , was the hegemony of groups linked to the left - would include here the Catholic left tied to liberation theology - and the Brazilian Communist Party , and , socially , social workers massively natives consists of the middle and petty bourgeoisie academic final operators of the changes that broke the hegemony of the Catholic sectors and conservative profession. Disturbances in the political -ethical project ( PEPO ) [edit · edit code ] Revealed two major shocks experienced project along its development: One of them is the final fall of "real socialism " between 1989 to 91.20 centrifuges with inevitable consequences for theory and political practice. It discusses the difficulty of the movement to stay within the Marxist tradition of self-criticism , and its slow slide into postmodern positions based on faith, religious concepts or messianic irrationalism . Also, his difficult cohabitation with the end of the " myths of all " .21 As a result of this, the other great disturbance experienced by the ethical-political project ( PEPO ) self- referred current mainstream social work ( ADCHTS ) in Brazil is the surprising inertia and limitations of his theoretical framework to interpret transformations in global and Latin American society in the last forty years. The increasing complexity of modern societies in a context of globalization , multiculturalism , and conflicting processes of universalization of rights , becomes anachronistic , among other concepts , the traditional distinction between state and civil society originated in the nineteenth century , as well as reading of a class society with frozen view in the nineteenth century or at the beginning of last century monopoly capitalism . The emergence of situations of risk and uncertainty that were barely glimpsed at its current magnitude short time ago , requires the adoption of theoretical frameworks that are able to incorporate new concepts to attempt an analysis of the forms of modernity present . The self-styled current mainstream social work ( ADCHTS ) [edit · edit code ] It is possible, from investigations by Emilio Enrique Dellasoppa , 22 describe then " self- denominated current mainstream social work ( ADCHTS ) in Brazil " , in the following points : The change process -union - political hegemony in social work academic Brazil is associated with political participation of social workers, almost entirely made up of women , natives or middle class of Brazilian society , primarily the public sector, the social and cultural services of the petty bourgeoisie and academic - university professors - with political and trade union militancy . This process involves the creation of an imaginary political, cultural and social development of these actors from the middle classes. The search for meaning , understood as a social , political, ideological and cultural by these sections of the petty bourgeoisie gradually materializes in the formulation of ethical-political project ( PEPO ) , conceived as a discursive tool for political struggle within the profession (both in academia , labor and institutional) and as an intervention in reality. As a feature that emerges from the material conditions of existence of the current participants ( only petty bourgeoisie ) , it is an eclectic theoretical imaginary based on multiple interpretations of various Marxisms and ultimately , uses faith as a justification . Adding to the political practice of the conceptions of A. Gramsci 's "war of position" 23 leads to an intervention in the reality that results in the occupation of Social Work of the petty bourgeoisie of spaces in academics, union and state institutions , social ascension materializing within the imaginary constructed . It thus forms the self-styled " hegemonic power " in social work in Brazil , and academic expression , the " social direction of the course" . Within current adheres to a classical historicist position orthodox Marxism : history reread performing an intervention that justifies the positions taken in the present. Although among the last curriculum review ( the syllabi are 1992 ) and the present , the world has undergone many changes , the current study continue to live the same conditioning intellectuals of the seventies , with its roots firmly established nineteenth century . The end of "real socialism " in 1989 and " myths of wholeness " , along with globalization, the emergence of the risk society and the decline of class politics , destroys the possibility of articulating the discourse on the real in around the concept of self-criticism , forcing the final return to the realm of faith : lift the fragile imaginary impenitence accurate now . Immunization records of self- referred current mainstream social work ( ADCHTS ) [edit · edit code ] The first verification , therefore, is that self-criticism becomes impossible , deprived by the fragmentation of any possibility of unitary discourse . Also, the disappearance of all myths : the proletariat , revolution and socialist society , recourse to historicism transformed into a simple matter of faith in a historical intervention on reality . Therefore, the question can not be analyzed in terms of self-criticism : the internal theoretical Marxism is fragmented into innumerable streams , many already corroded by neglect . The old placement of Norberto Bobbio "Neither Marx, nor against Marx ", 24 can be understood now in its exact dimensión.25 Given this situation , the last alternative - unique - is declared " impenintente " , 26 as part of a process "washing ideological-political capital ." Ethical-political project and Stalinism [edit · edit code ] Joseph Stalin and Lenin , 1919 . This ethical-political project of Social Work Brazil is in the difficult position of having to admit explicit impenitence , even in the case of crimes committed by Stalinism : self-criticism - impossible - would cause an implosion similar to 1989 mere disclosure of the facts and political positions . José Paulo Netto considered and apparently considered - no known denial about it - the violence of Stalinism " historically necessary " and this situation can not be resolved in the context of surgery that interprets history in terms of the needs of the struggle this policy : "In truth , therefore , what was then conducted was the establishment of the necessary infrastructure for the socialist transition . Therein lies the historically progressive role of the Stalinist autocracy : it completed the creation of the material conditions necessary for building a new kind of society .... what should be charged to the ruling group led by Stalin , then, is not this violence historically necessary . thing that should be put into your account is the transformation of these required constraints temporarily constant rule of political leadership .... "27 This is not an isolated position . This author also considered Stalin a great social scientist, organizing a book of his works in the collection " Great Social Scientists " , and still maintains this reference in your resume, a commendable attitude of intellectual honesty and political coherence . The prolongation of these anachronistic situations from the point of view of self-criticism is facilitated by the " material basis " consisting of students entering social work career in Brazil , according to what you put up on the basis of data student census . Stalin in an interview. The source of the opinions of José Paulo Netto on violence historically necessary for the construction of socialism is in György Lukács . Baldino28 Marco said: " ... According to Lukács with the October Revolution would " ... born the material foundations of Marxism for actual scientific construction so often required by Engels and then also in the Philosophical Notebooks Lenin . The vast historical guilt of Stalinism is not only in this construction have left unused scientific , but have made it back . " Baldino continues: 29 " At its core , the historical guilt of Stalinism would not be in the sixteen million dead of speaking , eg Foucault, but that Stalin ( for Lukacs ) [ ... ] " hindered trend would have been capable of this scientific construction ." The political roots of the founders of the current and his followers , are nailed to the iconoclastic arguments M.Foucault , 30 starting with his insightful critique of " Marxist party " [ ... ] " defined by the communist parties , which are the ones who decide how you have to use Marx to get them to declare what Marxist " , 31 from which challenged the so-called " post- Stalinist Stalinism that Marxist discourse by excluding anything that is not a repeat fearful of what has previously said, it allows to reveal unexplored domains [ ... ] . Marxists the price paid for their fidelity to the old positivism was a radical deafness to a range of issues raised by science " , 32 concluding that "The conception of the role of Stalinist violence is paradigmatic . 'm not finding anything. reporting only a reality that is known in the whole world long ago" .33 Solzhenitsyn with Vladimir Putin. These judgments Foucault, have been faithfully corroborated the stories made by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , writer, historian and Russian Literature Nobel Prize , 34 revealing the horrors of Stalinist genocide in his book : " The Gulag Archipelago " , in which the system analyzes Soviet prison , terrorism and the role of the secret police. Solzhenitsyn listed the atrocities of a State insanely faced his own people almost since its inception . In one of the most glorious moments of the gulag , by 1936 , there were about five million prisoners who composed what Franz Kafka would have called " prison colony " . A number increased year by year until the death of Stalin in 1953 . In total , between 1928 and the death of " Father of the people" , between 40 and 50 million people were sent to serve sentences in what Solzhenitsyn called metaphorically archipelago of labor camps spread across the Soviet Union. About half of them never returned. Failure political -ethical project [edit · edit code ] Emilio Enrique Dellasoppa , 35 has noted that: " The " intent to break " of the members of this project political ethics can be questioned on this point: never able to generate any " intent to break "to break with Stalinism, messianic utopianism frozen truths in the nineteenth century . " Dellasoppa concludes : " So faith and impenitence are the only alternatives for the future of this movement . " Myths and hobbies -called " Liberation Social Work " [edit · edit code ] Karl Marx. The ethical-political discourse , which has been developed by Iamamoto and Netto , which contextualizes its research program and its followers as a " Liberation Social Work " is a tax " discourse of power" , which translates into a "device" 36 invalidating the same inquisitive nature of epistemology, and immunizes them against the critical spirit spectra desideologizador , 37 to pass and thus disallow any program, approach or theory that is not within the genealogical line of " orthodoxy" of KH Marx G. Luckács38 and not responding to his own conception of ontology arbitrary (- a nebula ontotheology , 39 which aims to be naturalized by a kind of magic verbal40 - ) , with a profile reifying essentialist attributes and anachronistic , and even shows a misunderstanding of the nature comprehensive - hermeneutic ontology , ie trivialize the complex process of hermeneutic ontology to achieve understanding ser.41 Similarly , it follows to the letter , the notion " Lukacs " of " ontology of social being " , 42 that although the euphony becomes a striking and emotionally charged typical of a political rally , conceptually is a meaningless expression . The body ( ontic ) acquires its ontological dimension through comprehensive process - hermeneutic superlative and exclusive of a being comprendente . Therefore, to an ontology of social being , is to give subject properties , subjective properties , real understanding, hermeneutics properties to symbolic actions and transformative social cluster , like a subject with its own individual characteristics cognizant , instead to identify it as a conceptual construct epistemological level - cognitive, without individualized ontic referent , which clearly makes evident how weak are the epistemological and ethical methods of this political project . This attempt to Lukács , starting from his ethics , to establish an "ontology of social being " , it becomes clear remnant, which links to the vision of the world, was harder the Stalinist authoritarianism Hitler , 43 when Martin Heidegger , in his euphoric aim of becoming " Führer Führer " , 44 evidenced in his " being and Time " , specifies that : " Dasein ( being - there, or just being - ) should be treated as authentic Community ( Gemeinschaft ) and Pueblo, and that he must choose his own "their hero " in order to " become free for the continuation of combat" .45 Furthermore , Heidegger also coined the term " Sein Volk " ( - being of town ) , expression of which it is possible to find many similarities with various concepts of Lukács , both with the notion of " class consciousness " '46 in the early stage of his work , such as the notion of " social " on its last leg .47 This subjectivity of complex social interactions , Heidegger expressed in several of his political speeches , as performed in Leipzig in 1931 : " That does not mean give back to the community of nations. Instead, our people , thanks to this step , is placed under the authority of this law essential to all human existence , to which all people must first obedience if it wants to remain a village ( - its being- ) "( sein Volk ) .48 Making a conceptual background trace , not is difficult to find the conceptual links between the political ideas of Heidegger , National socialism the worker and the German nationalist romanticism , which reaches its superlative dimension Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , in the Phenomenology of Spirit ( Phänomenologie des Geistes ) , 49 who features in his idealist holism , the expression " Volksgeist " ( Spirit of the village) , phylogenetically linked concept heidegeriana expression of " Volk Sein " ( Being the village) and the notion of Lukács neohegeliana " class consciousness " 50 Jürgen Habermas reached considered obscene semantic Heidegger this abuse , 51 with obvious excitement purposes of Nazism and are also similar to those late Lukács , conceptually underpin "Stalinism " totalitarian at its peak , but it was an " unrequited love "52 It is clear then, the discourse of power developed in the context of the "Social Work release " , promulgating protect the integrity and orthodoxy of Marxism ( something that not even Marx did) , 53 avoiding any eventual metamorphosis , and take a record of immunization against any such theory that threatens orthodoxy and vigorously defending against any mixture or heterodoxy and that could cause you unwanted pregnancies . Hence, to maintain its purity true , it attacks the ghost that supposedly runs Latin America: eclecticism. José Pablo Netto , transversally in his works , he charges a crusade against syncretism of professional practice , and against eclecticism in Social Work. But what it shows in his quixotic claim, is that it is fighting against his own ghostly specters, for under his speech antieclectizante , what evidence is a struggle against arbitrary theoretical and methodological , epistemological foundation absent a robust , absences which are manifested not only in his work, but also promote a spectrum hazy on the transdisciplinary nature of Social Work , which eventually undermines rigorous efforts to achieve various methodological convergence between different areas , different approaches , from different disciplines subjetuales historical , legitimate purposes to find concrete strategies to solve these problems in the context of a wide range of phenomena manifests the social question. Traditions of Social Work in Costa Rica . UCR54 Then , the adoption of the guidelines in this "Social Work of Liberation " , roughly established by his great gurus : M. Iamamoto and J. P. Netto, in some traditions and undergraduate and graduate schools of universities in Latin America, especially in various South American countries , including Argentina , Uruguay55 and in the same Brazil , and other countries of Central America, particularly in Costa Rica , 56 shows a nineteenth binding precepts , that rather than favoring one innovative professional practice is transdisciplinary , favors certain privileges " academic tribes " or "captains (as) of scholarship " (as Thorstein Veblen called ironically ) , who advocate a vision conservative society , either from the standpoint of scholasticism Catholic heir by a party or the other in profile anachronistic nineteenth-century Marxism . Pending unavoidable tasks mark a break and a discontinuity in the reproduction of conservatism and traditionalism esclerotizado the "status quo " despite these discontinuities are manifest in social systems ontic specific factual and shown in the dizzying dynamics present in the XXI century , in the political, economic , social and even in the effervescent worlds of everyday life and social work in their professional practice daily finds , beyond normativism of the captains of erudition of university tribes . There remain the tasks of opening new ears deconstructive of the complex and multidimensional faces , masks, masks, individual human nature and society. Observe trends critical and progressive look at this " Liberation Social Work " as hegemonic practice of university bourgeoisie , which under their skins academic remain in deeper conservatism , 57 without marking any discontinuity , or deconstruction of the shackles economic, political , social and moral of late capitalism in the context of bourgeois law states it is analogous to Foucault noted that Marx in all his dialectical skill in analysis of the phenomenal form of goods, did little more than provide a ' exegesis ' of value assumptions mired in nineteenth century . Foucault noted that Marx 's critique against capitalist theory valor58 capitalism could not refute because it relies on the same metaphysical foundations , the order of knowledge based on a world of things and objects : 59 " At the deepest level of knowledge Western Marxism introduced no actual discontinuity ; easily found his place as a fully, quiet, comfortable and satisfying for a time (yours ) , within an epistemological arrangement that gladly received ( as indeed was the under what he was doing field) and, for his part, had no intention of disturbing and, above all , he had no power to change , not even a tilde, because descasaba entirely on this arrangement. Marxism exists in thought nineteenth century as a fish in water , ie , can not breathe anywhere else . opposes although theories " bourgeois " of the economy, and although opposition takes to use the project of a radical investment history as a weapon against them , that conflict and the project does not have as a condition of the possibility of the reformulation of all history , but an event that any archeology can locate accurately and simultaneously prescribed the same century revolutionary economy . 's their disputes may have shaken a few waves and causing a few ripples surface , but they are just storm in a glass of water "( Foucault , M. the Order of Things : An Arqueology of the Human Sciences, 60 1973 , p . 261-263 ) .
It differs substantially from other professional practice , so it defines its own subject - object ( ontic -ontological dimension ) , its modes, methods and methodologies ( epistemological dimension ) and levels of speech, slang and specialized terminologies ( epistemological - cognitive dimension ) . In his theoretical - cognitive aspect , has the properties of a historical- subjectual , emerging transdisciplinary 10 in the context of historical sciences subjetuales as psychology , anthropology , sociology, politicología , the antropogogía , 11 subjetuales12 technologies and interventions psychotherapy , institutional management , occupational health , labor law , civil and family ; reached differentiating properties that give disciplinary autonomy . In the aspect of transformation and intervention objective social structures ( ontic ) and the intersubjectivities dynamics of social intersubjetualidades ( ontologicidad ) , has the properties of a technology subjectual and is the dimension that emerges as a historical product of praxis discipline and whose validity is achieved in the context of intersubjective communicative actions . As has transpired transdiscipline local professional practices , reaching a transnational character, acquired acceptance and institution , university curricula incorporating various academic degrees , such as " diplomas " Europeans ; baccalaureate in the U.S., Puerto Rico and Latin America , degrees and Chile , Colombia , Argentina , Panama , Costa Rica , whose maturation transdisciplinary graduate opens specialties , as masters that have been developed in Argentina , Chile , Costa Rica , Honduras , Guatemala , Panama . Recently been incorporated into university curricula Social Work doctoral degrees especially in Brazil, Argentina and Puerto Rico . Finally, as the profession consolidated postdoctoral levels reached in Brazil, Europe and the United States. Therefore, it is a profession with a transdisciplinary and international coverage (both as a professional transdiscipinar ) that more than one hundred years of existence in the world , housing projects and programs with specific university many and varied. The two roots determinants in the development of the profession , have been of European, Belgian influence , English, French , German and Italian , as the other, and substantive differences , is the American tradition , which he hegemony after the Second World War. However, various forms of social welfarism have been present in other historical moments and other non-Western cultural traditions .
Social work can be considered as defining transdiscipline whose properties emerge from the theoretical and methodological convergence of diverse and varied disciplines and historical roots subjectual - subjectual , 5 in the context of the professional practice of various guilds in various historical and geographic locations . Emergent properties of this transdisciplinary , define its subject - object , its purposes , methods and methodologies , their jargon and specialized terminology . His references are fully geared to both individuals, groups or companies objective ( ontological dimension ) , as to the phenomena around the dynamics of individual personalities subjective or intersubjective dynamics of group activities , organizational or institutional ( ontological dimension ) .6 As a transdisciplinary , consolidates autonomously from a gradual process of inter and multi-disciplinary emergency , both in its size and in its ontic ontological dimension , its subject - objects are humans considered fully into its components such biological, psychological and sociological . As historical discipline - subjectual acquires thus a reflexive property , as it is a comprehensive process - explanatory - transformative human beings , in the role of workers or social workers, around other human beings , in the role of subjects - objects observed , understood, explained and operated . The human being is dimensioned then this transdisciplinary , holistically both in its ontological dimension , as in its ontological dimension , which shows the complex and dynamic nature , whose " quidditas " is expressed in differentiating emergent property , " the ontoergónica "7 it is then ontic - dynamic property , which allows to reveal the human being as a project, that is, not only as an object of study itself ( reflexive property subjetuales sciences ) , but is at the same time subjects of their own development, acting individual and social transformations in symbolic- linguistic contexts comunicativas.8 shares why the human quiddity project reaches its goal incorporates in its dynamic dimension ontoergónica
The current state of social work around professional development , is characterized by two inputs , firstly , incorporating various elements from various research programs sociological , anthropological , philosophical and psychological , that have achieved transdisciplinary assembled , starting by the efforts made by researchers and research university (as) , as well as by researchers and researchers from other institutions , foundations , NGOs, or social service agencies . Moreover, the professional practice biofeedback allows university research or institutional . However, these two inputs have made a gap between the information obtained through professional practice and institutional scholarly research . The combination of these two types of inputs is often imperfect knowledge . Hoping to bridge this gap , throughout the twentieth century, and specialists in the field have permanent open debates, with the intention of achieving a theoretical and methodological convergence , the input of the results obtained from a diverse professional practice with the results of institutional research , yet the tension between these two inputs, institutional theory - professional practice is a problem present in both scholars and institutional scholars , manifesting in the core curriculum policy careers university , and in the various types of practice of the professionals of the field. In practice one or professional Social work addresses the barriers , inequities and injustices that exist in society . It responds to crises and emergencies as well as personal and social problems of everyday life . However, not always theorizing gives institutional and professional discipline, scientific, technical and technological interventions for psychosocial processes on subject - object , let alone the techniques and strategies for participation in the policy, planning and social development . In the case of social interventions , the professional must make various types of social counseling and case analysis , group behavior or institutional support interventional actions on methods derived from socio- antropogogía and family therapy ; also , various types of social interventions requires strategies and techniques go to administrative, legal and institutional planning , to human groups get services and community resources. In professional practice , the professional and social work responsibilities will require planning and coordination of community agencies and participation in equity policies targeted to the modification and support of social and economic policies of the States which she belongs . The priorities for practice and social work professionals , vary from one country to another , and over time , depending on the cultural, historical and socioeconomic .
Includes wide variety of performance areas (all sectors of the population that need special attention) : Elderly, disabled, battered people (especially women, children and elderly) , prisoners , victims of terrorism , immigrants, excluding minor social , ethnic minorities, and addictions drug addiction , social emergency , prostitution, among other areas. A technological tool subjectual your workplace, is the social report , social history , the record , social diagnosis , the intervention project , tracking sheets , among others. Currently Social Work also develops its action in the third sector (associations , foundations , groups and NGOs) and to a lesser extent in private enterprise . Are added as technological tools - subjetuales , as part of its social intervention : expert reports , oral own justice system . Also in the school context , mediate disputes between members of the educational community , conduct treatment therapy families, groups, individuals , to seek resolution of their social interactions and problems that are causing suffering. Social work in prisons Social Work in prisons or inmates directed plays an important role in the fields of professional activity of a social worker . Prison institutions as social work , is a scope for behavior modification and temporary or permanent concealment of individuals who threaten social harmony under a free media , because for some causal have corrupted it. The purpose of the social worker with inmates is able to achieve social reintegration of the individual, ¨ so it becomes aware and identify the circumstances that led to their offending behavior and the consequences of deprivation of liberty ¨ ( Acevedo , 2003 , p.21 ) and this professional a vital component in all interdisciplinary treatment to which prisoners are exposed . At first glance the social worker should be aware that their work is aimed at a subject in a situation that remains similarly person has human dignity. Among the functions carried out by the social worker , led the prison environment is ( Source : Velez , Z. (1997 ) . A social worker for the new millennium . Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico : University of Puerto Rico . ) Intervention with individuals and families Risk weight - transition Protection Service Case management - maintenance Provision of services and resources Dispute Resolution : Conflict Management Maintenance of the organization Software Development It is necessary to direct attention to a professional bond axis - recipient of the intervention , called from the body of law that characterizes on stage as internal ¨ ¨ ( Acevedo , 2003 , p.21 ) . ¨ Professional intervention is a constitutive dimension of the disciplinary field , participating in field research. Both practices are articulated and feed back because it is knowledge that allows access to the understanding of the situations that the intervention seeks to transform , knowledge that will provide the arguments and professional foundations ¨ ( Cazzaniga , 2007 , p.83 ) . Which we inferred that the social worker should encourage their appropriate intervention work at personal contact attached to external investigations about the inmate. The methodology used by the social worker in cases of inmates is as follows : ( Source : Aguilar , I. , Chacon , L. , Gonzalez , M. , Gozalez , R. , Jimenez , S. , Lowe , M. , Mora , L. , Murillo , F. and Ortiz , J. ( 2006 ) . intervention social work and psychology at the Costa Rican justice . San Jose , Costa Rica : Editorama . ) The application receives professional study. Record the case in case-control book ( there is a book of minutes ) . Each professional prepares the file to realize the information obtained. Manufactures the subpoena . The social worker plans the home visit and / or institutional appointment sent through court -quoting and make telephone coordination . Performs Domiciliary visit to valued or institution where the inmate. Family -justify professional intervention and aim to fulfill. Performs interviews with people related to the individual ( family, neighbors , administrative authority , professional and other collateral sources ) . Evaluate the socio - family and community in which it operates the inmate . They stipulate the date and time of the interview to meet the research process . Within the frame of reference that the social worker must investigate and study to reach your goal : Family relationships Interpersonal relationships His previous coexistence in the community Which is why the person is incarcerated The social worker should be encouraged to be able to develop an environment to meet and exchange to facilitate the path to overcoming conflicts , based on dialogue main responsibility . ( Acevedo , 2003 , p.21 ) . Another approach which is directed to the services of a professional social work within a correctional institution it is institutional socialization or adaptive integration of the individual entry to prison. The reality is that the inmate will face a lack of internal consistency between the members of an institution, opposed interests , lack of coordination of human activities and compression criteria of the social fact that stands in the figure of the detainee. ( Acevedo , 2003 , p.21 ) . Similarly, social interaction and mental well-being go hand in hand in situations involving deprivation of freedom and integration into a penal institution . An article in the academic journal Social Forum plasma us a study by Research Triangle Institute, Health and Social Policy Division to male and female prisoners in order to define their mental study variants taking as marital status , possession of children and support social (internal and external). The result showed that prison institutions rather than promoting mental wellbeing , social relationships inside and outside the institution are associated with higher levels of distress within mental health. The highest levels of anxiety and depression the inmates who have encountered marital and inmates with higher levels of hostility were those who maintained social relations within the prison . This study is an indispensable test all prisoners need to have help from a social worker that provides tools for living and integration into the institution along with other inmates. This professional, in prisons , also works in cases of inmates hospitalized , oriented to the divorce , birth registration of children , and in case of death or serious illness of an immediate family member of the inmate must arrange for such circumstances. Similarly holds interests in checking link in the case of the Criminal Penal tour and intimate tour . ( Uzcudun ) Sometimes the roles of social workers in prisons face a number of problems that preclude complete their professional development . Some of these are ( Source : Uzcudun , B. (date not mentioned ) . Interpellation on the role of Social Worker prison . Newspaper of Social Work and Social Sciences Edition electrónica.4 Institutional project limiting rigid and limited capacity for action . Little room for autonomy to promote new projects . Pyramidal organization which restricts the emergence of formal and informal spaces to express interests and opinions . Shortage of work incentives. Lack of training to update and guidance in addressing the problem of confinement. Lack of interdisciplinary work . Grouping Shapes in instances where the decision is required across sectors. Strictly formal communication between the different sectors. Inadequate working conditions, materials, techniques , infrastructure and human resources . Hegemony forces internal and external security over professional intervention . The roles that are attributed to the social worker is related to practice and immediatist resolution in situations of need . Playing the social image of the profession that determines the type of demands associated with administrative problems. Prevalence of bureaucratic tasks professionals must resign their specific functions and technical professionals. Responses focused on spontaneous demands and solve emerging problems . Interference of political-economic context . The social worker is a vital factor within the components of the correctional institution and with the collaboration of society should promote the full development of the same for the benefit and improvement of the inmates who receive their services. Social Work in the protection and adoption processes You need to recognize the role played by the social work professional in the area of comprehensive protection mechanisms , since the adoption for children , girls and adolescents in situations of non-compliance , threat or violation of their rights . As the quintessential protective measure aimed at providing a home to a child who does not have it in the same terms as a biological child , providing the child a permanent home that provides comprehensive development within a proper family and avoid irreversible effects institutionalization entails . It is important to the work of the social worker in the process by providing family partner contribution to the process , the interdisciplinary team intervention target population , since all Social Worker must as informal educator , emphasizing the guidance, training and comprehensive training . The fundamental purpose of social work in the interdisciplinary team is focused on the understanding and analysis of social reality to influence , guide and enhance the social, where individuals interact with their environment , groups, families , organizations and communities in the pursuit of development and social welfare . " The Role of Social Workers in front of children , girls and adolescents as for restoration of rights is directed to the field of family, which includes pregnant women , children protection and adoption processes . For these processes require the intervention of social workers since the purpose of these is to provide protection and welfare of children and adolescents who require not only basic care , rehabilitation , but finding a family that wants to provide protection, welfare , human development and a decent life for these children who are at high risk because they have been abandoned . The social worker becomes a facilitator in resolving difficulties, which helps overcome a disadvantage , discrimination and vulnerability , identifies the reality and expectations of the people , facing the multiple and expanding range of social Role of social worker • Make the diagnosis of the reason for your infant. • Participate in the selection of adoptive families . • presents relevant information in the process . • Collaborate with the processes developed by the family advocate The methodologies used are of intervention: • Preventive • Promotional • Orientation • Evaluative • Case Method • crisis intervention model . The Purpose of Adoption is the establishment of a real family , such as exists between bound by ties of blood, with all the rights and duties that entails , since by virtue of the adoption the adopter agrees to care for and assist adopted son , to educate , support , love and provide you with all the necessary conditions for it to grow in wellness environment , affection and solidarity. Techniques for individual and group work in the adoption process : • Home visits • Interview • Observation • Dynamic experiential and participatory
The roles of professional social work include: Providing information and social connections socioeconomic resources agencies ( joint networks ) . Understand, manage and promote existing resources among potential users and professionals in other fields of science that can be in contact with potential users. And among others are: Receive , guides, educates individuals, families , groups and communities in the peaceful settlement of their conflict through a culture of dialogue and consultation. Make social research to help identify and interpret the causes of social phenomena that occur in any context considering alternative solutions to the same . Participate in the management , design, implementation , evaluation of plans, programs and projects aimed at improving the living conditions of the community, both public and private institutions . Participates in the design , program management personnel , labor welfare , social security and occupational health. Management development programs and social projects with governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Form interdisciplinary teams working on improving the quality of life of the population through socio-educational processes of promotion and prevention. Delivery or treatments applied in psychotherapy or family therapy to individuals, couples , families and groups. A practical example of how they perform in reality some of the above functions, we can see in preventive detention centers Federal District , in which social work professionals are in frequent contact with internal procedures to facilitate these want to do in order to end or start their primary , secondary, etc. . , because as they are deprived of their liberty , they are virtually impossible to obtain personally manage documents in government or private institutions ( such as certificates of studies , birth certificates , report cards, etc. . ) are necessary for them to study while inmates. That is why the Social Worker should be aware of the existence of cooperation agreements between the public educational institutions and Detention Centers that allow inmates to have the material needed to pursue their studies . Moreover, these professionals should be in frequent contact with the trustees , doctors and psychologists who work in Prisons , as well as visitors of human rights defenders ( in criminal , family, work, etc. . ) , Experts of the procurators of Justice , members of law enforcement agencies , reporters or actuaries of the Courts of Justice, etc. . , which by reason of their duties should relate to the inmates to practice proceedings or any action , in order that the prisoner does not be intimidated and give you confidence that if you need help is the Social Worker shall assist you whether to inform your families , managing the assistance of public and private institutions dedicated to defending the human rights of inmates or perform any procedure which tends to protect the safety of the inmate while in the aforementioned centers . In this situation, one of the objectives of the Social Worker both in prisons and in prisons , " is to design and develop research designs to identify associated socio-cultural causes and / or related to antisocial behavior : the offense , the offender and the crime . Thus, the specific objectives would be to plan and implement activities to facilitate adaptation to extraordinary circumstances of inmates newly admitted to the rehabilitation and optimize their rehabilitation and reintegration into the social , family and work " ( Note : the information is quoted is taken from a document prepared by the Correctional Training Institute under the Secretariat of Penitentiary System of the Ministry of Government of the Federal District , Mexico , titled Social Service , has unfortunately not been possible to refer more bibliographic data, given which has made it impossible to find such documents integral, since we have only a fragmented piece that helps us to provide bibliographic details ) . From the above, we can say that in the performance of the functions carried out by the social worker are created with the passing of the years and the growing experience of social work , new techniques and methodologies for reintegration into society. Do not forget that the social worker makes a humanitarian aimed at the realization of all abilities and skills that people may have in their social environment , so that both in prisons and in the prison to develop values humans through training , education and work activities in order to prepare internal social reintegration, on obtaining his freedom and so have the opportunity to find and practice a trade or profession beneficial for themselves and for the society. Given that the inmate has been deprived of liberty for having violated social values established by law or the legal system and under the same system that has incorporated the new methods of treatment with a holistic or complete , which is why the inmate is instructed his internment with an educational perspective , social, labor and cultural , so that the internal skills and see the different options you have at your fingertips and puedad practice once you get freedom ( Note: To delve deeper into the topic , you can consult the work of RODRIGUEZ CAMPOS, Ishmael. Labour Prison . MONTERREY 1982 ) .
Social work is defined according to the International Federation of Social Workers and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW ) as the profession " that promotes social change , problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being . utilizing theories of human behavior and social systems , social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environment . Principles of Human Rights and social justice are fundamental to Social Work " . Social work in its various forms addresses the multiple, complex relationships between people and their environments. Its mission is to enable all people to develop their full potential , enrich their lives , and prevent dysfunction . Therefore, the professionals in social work , become agents of change in society and in the lives of individuals , families and communities they work for . Social work is a dynamic , integrated system of values, theory and practice related.